Christus in Hades afgedaald

"Want David zegt over Hem: … want U zult mijn ziel in het graf [Gr.: Hades] niet verlaten en Uw Heilige niet overgeven om ontbinding te zien."
Hand. 2:25,27

"'Hij steeg op' - wat betekent dat anders dan dat hij ook is afgedaald naar wat lager ligt, naar de aarde?" Ef. 4:9

"Hij is naar de geesten gegaan die gevangen zaten, om dit alles te verkondigen." 1 Pet. 4:19

"Ook aan de doden is het evangelie verkondigd [in Hades], opdat ook zij, al zijn ze naar hun leven op aarde door de mensen veroordeeld, bij God in de geest kunnen leven." 1 Pet. 4:6


These apostles and teachers preached the name of the Son of God. After falling asleep in the power and faith of the Son of God, the apostles not only preached it to those who were asleep, but they themselves also gave them the seal of the preaching [i.e., baptism]. Accordingly, the apostles descended with them into the water and ascended again. . . . For such ones slept in righteousness and in great purity. Only, they did not have this seal. Hermas (c. 150, W), 1.49.

Christ rose from the place of the dead, and raised up the race of Adam from the grave [Hades] below. Melito (c. 170, E), 8.757.

The Lord was made “the First-Begotten of the dead.” Receiving into His bosom the ancient fathers, He has regenerated them into the life of God. Irenaeus (c. 180, E/W), 1.455.

For their benefit, “He also descended into the lower parts of the earth,” to behold with His eyes the state of those who were resting from their labors. . . . For Christ did not come merely for those who believed on Him in the time of Tiberius Caesar. Nor did the Father exercise His providence only for the men who are presently alive. Rather, He exercised it for all men altogether, who from the beginning . . . have both feared and loved God. Irenaeus (c. 180, E/ W), 1.494.

It was for this reason, too, that the Lord descended into the regions beneath the earth, preaching His advent there also. And He [declared] the remission of sins received by those who believe in Him. Irenaeus (c. 180, E/ W), 1.499.

He gathered from the ends of the earth into His Father’s fold the children who were scattered abroad. And He remembered His own dead ones, who had previously fallen asleep. He came down to them so that He might deliver them. Irenaeus (c. 180, E/W), 1.506.

For three days He dwelt in the place where the dead were, as the prophet said concerning Him. “And the Lord remembered His dead saints who slept formerly in the land of the dead. And He descended to them to rescue and save them.” The Lord Himself said, “As Jonah remained three days and three nights in the whale’s belly, so will the Son of man be in the heart of the earth.” Irenaeus (c. 180, E/W), 1.560.

The Lord preached the Gospel to those in Hades. . . . Do not [the Scriptures] show that the Lord preached the Gospel to those who perished in the flood, or rather had been chained, as to those kept in ward and guard? And it has been shown also . . . that the apostles, following the Lord, preached the Gospel to those in Hades. . . . If, then, the Lord descended to Hades for no other reason but to preach the Gospel (as He did descend), itwas either to preach the Gospel to all, or else to the Hebrews only. If, accordingly, He preached to all, then all who believe will be saved on making their profession there—even though they may be Gentiles. For God’s punishments are saving and disciplinary, leading to conversion. He desires the repentance, rather than the death, of a sinner. This is especially so since souls, although darkened by passions, when released from their bodies, are able to perceive more clearly. For they are no longer obstructed by the paltry flesh. . . . Did not the same dispensation obtain in Hades? For even there, all the souls, on hearing the proclamation, could either exhibit repentance, or confess that their punishment was just, because they did not believe. And it was not arbitrary that they could obtain either salvation or punishment. For those who had departed before the coming of the Lord had not had the Gospel preached to them. So they had been given no opportunity to either believe or not believe.
Clement of Alexandria (c. 195, E), 2.490, 491.

He preached the Gospel to those in the flesh so that they would not be condemned unjustly. So how is it conceivable that He did not for the same reason preach the Gospel to those who had departed this life before His coming? Clement of Alexandria (c. 195, E), 2.492.

Hades is not supposed by us to be a bare cavity, nor some subterranean sewer of the world. Rather it is a vast deep space in the interior of the earth. . . . For we read that Christ in His death spent three days in the heart of the earth. . . . He did not ascend into the heights of heaven before descending into the lower parts of the earth. This was so that He might there [in Hades] make the patriarchs and prophets partakers of Himself. Tertullian (c. 210, W), 3.231.

Zie ook:

Clement of Alexandria (c. 195, E), 2.357, 572, 575.
Hippolytus (c. 200, W), 5.209, 213.
Hippolytus (c. 205, W), 5.170, 194.
Origen (c. 228, E), 9.315, 451.
Origen (c. 248, E), 4.448.
Lactantius (c. 304–313, W), 7.122, 131.
Alexander of Alexandria (c. 324, E), 6.301.

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